Development of Indicators and Surrogate for Chemical Contaminant

The project identifies surrogate parameters and indicator compounds for wastewater-derived chemical contaminants that might be useful in the assessment of indirect potable reuse systems......

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Impacts of Membrane Process Residuals on Wastewater Treatment

The project provides practical guidance to utilities concerning the effects of membrane process residuals on wastewater treatment (including treatment processes, effluent quality, and water reuse and residuals management options)....

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Survey of High Recovery and Zero Liquid Discharge Technologies for Water Utilities

The project evaluates the costs of commercially available volume minimization and ZLD processing schemes over a range of size, salinity, and water composition variables. In addition to identifying and characterizing processes and developing performance and cost projections, regulatory issues associated with use of the technologies...

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Extending the Integrated Resource Planning Process to Include Water Reuse and Other Nontraditional Water Sources

The project provides guidance and examples of how water planners and managers can use the Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) process as an objective and balanced way to explore the relative merits of considering nontraditional water supply (NTWS) options alongside their suite of more typical water...

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Salinity Management Guide: The Links Between Soil, Salt and Recycled Water

The project promotes the use of recycled municipal waters instead of potable waters for irrigation of landscapes through education on various salinity management techniques that may be implemented....

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Application of Microbial Risk Assessment Techniques to Estimate Risk Due to Exposure to Reclaimed Waters

The project assesses microbial risk to provide insight toward understanding the relative risks to human health associated with nonpotable water reuse applications....

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Reclaimed Water Aquifer Storage and Recovery: Potential Changes in Water Quality

The project describes the state of the practice of reclaimed water ASR, identify wastewater constituents and water quality parameters of significance for designing, monitoring, and evaluating reclaimed water ASR, and measure concentrations of contaminants at various stages of recharge, storage, and recovery of reclaimed water...

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Dewatering Reverse Osmosis Concentrate from Water Reuse Applications Using Forward Osmosis

The project investigates the viability of utilizing FO for dewatering RO concentrate, alternative membrane configurations for FO applications, innovative draw solutions, and the economic feasibility of dewatering RO concentrate by using FO....

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An Economic Framework for Evaluating Benefits and Costs of Water Reuse

The project provides an economic framework to help water managers conduct a benefit-cost analysis that identifies, estimates, and effectively communicates the full range of benefits and costs associated with water reuse or related activities....

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