Home\Educate\Water Reuse 101\Research Projects\Year\2013\Demonstration of Filtration and Disinfection Compliance Through Soil-Aquifer Treatment

Demonstration of Filtration and Disinfection Compliance Through Soil-Aquifer Treatment

Project: 10-10
Year Released: 2013
Product: Report

Program: Principal
Funding Partners: Bureau of Reclamation, City of Fresno, City of Dinuba, Carollo Engineers
Total Investment: $130,698.97 (Cash: $75,000, In-Kind: $55,698.97)

Principal Investigator: Steve Hogg, City of Fresno, CA


The Cities of Fresno and Dinuba in California would like to capture the percolated unfiltered secondary wastewater through extraction wells and reuse it. Using SAT instead of constructing new facilities would save these cities many millions of dollars. While it has been assumed that SAT provides a substantial barrier to pathogens, detailed studies have been limited by analytical techniques.

Goals and Objectives

The project evaluates the efficacy of low-cost and low-impact treatment, such as soil-aquifer treatment (SAT), for the production of reclaimed water.

Research Approach

A new, high-volume virus enumeration technique for evaluating log removal of organisms present in very low numbers was field tested and used to demonstrate the efficacy of SAT to remove microorganisms at the wastewater treatment facilities of both the City of Fresno and the City of Dinuba, in California. This new enumeration method was successfully field validated through a series of spiking studies at Fresno and Dinuba. This validated method can be used worldwide to evaluate, monitor, and permit SAT systems.

Findings and Conclusions

Virus sampling results of the SAT influent and effluent during this project showed that the SAT process is capable of achieving approximately 5-log reduction of male-specific (MS2) coliphage as well as reducing total coliforms and turbidity. These results indicate that SAT was effective at removing microorganisms from the percolated secondary wastewater.

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