Home\Educate\Water Reuse 101\Research Projects\Year\2009\Selecting Treatment Trains for Seasonal Storage of Reclaimed Water Treatment of Influent to and Withdrawals from Storage: A Resource Guide

Selecting Treatment Trains for Seasonal Storage of Reclaimed Water Treatment of Influent to and Withdrawals from Storage: A Resource Guide

Project: 04-21
Type: Decision Making Tool
Year Released: 2009

Program: Principal
Funding Partner: Bureau of Reclamation
Total Investment: $139,800 (Cash)

Principal Investigators: Gerard Miller, Ph.D., Black & Veatch and Alan E. Rimer, Ph.D., Black & Veatch


Many utilities are considering or have implemented seasonal storage facilities (typically open reservoirs) to balance peak seasonal demands for reclaimed water (for example, irrigation) against the relatively constant supply from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Storage changes the characteristics of reclaimed water and often algae will become a problem.

Goals and Objectives

The project documents the water quality and cost trade-offs associated with storage options for the reclaimed water, considering the trade-offs involved in the treatment, management, and operating procedures at wastewater treatment facilities preceding discharge of the reclaimed water to the storage systems.

Research Approach

The selection of treatment trains that will be protective of the reclaimed water quality involved a number of steps, beginning with a literature survey. The objective of the survey was to form a basis for the research into both the reservoir water quality, and the treatment needed to meet reclaimed water quality requirements for storage. The research began with identifying parameters of concern associated with reclaimed water in storage reservoirs, including evaluation of the criteria for various uses of reclaimed water. A selection process for the appropriate treatment train(s) was then developed. Case studies highlight the process. Following this work a decision analysis process was developed to assist utilities in implementing the strategy for their specific cases.

Findings and Conclusions

This Resource Guide was prepared to assist utilities and consulting engineers by providing a decision-making framework (decision matrix) for meeting these objectives. It focuses on considerations of short-term or long-term storage and methods of treatment of the reclaimed water before storage.

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